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Study of mobility

Introduction

As stated at the beginning of this document, the study of mobility developed in ecomile has contributed new data thanks to the use of new technologies and the implication of the general public, so enhancing and enriching the information generated by previous conventional studies of mobility. Among others, the new and important contributions have been aspects such as kilometres travelled, the CO2 emitted, geopositioning of the journeys or more frequent routes. However, the most important feature is that the study has been active and dynamic, that is to say, as data has been collected, at the same time it has been possible to influence and to establish a communication channel with the public: this makes possible a future scenario in which, for example, the City council can divert traffic in order to validate provisional routes, to control traffic black spots or to develop compensation mechanisms for the most efficient, safe or committed citizens.

Nearly 5,000 journeys between the 150 participants were registered, with an average of more than 30 per person, generally speaking. It is important to note that this is a gross figure which was limited as the area of geographic interest and object of the study was the Knowledge Mile. For that reason journeys that did not start or end in this area were not considered for certain analyses of the study. After filtering, a total of 1,444 journeys of interest were obtained, almost 30% of the registered total journeys and on which the majority of the mobility study of the Knowledge Mile was based.

Results

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In the study it was possible to state that the journeys in general are quite short, bearing in mind that most last less than 15 minutes. This is a clear indication that the urban journeys are more than triple the interurban, this being because 58% of the participants in the experiment are from Gijon, predominatly from El Llano district and the rural zone with 9% each. As far as the rest of Asturias is concerned, it can be highlighted that of the total number of workers and students of the area, 13% come from the central zone (Oviedo, Siero, Llanera, Aviles and Villaviciosa) and only 4% from the mining valley areas (Mieres, Langreo, Aller, etc.). Another peculiarity observed during the study is that a relevant number of journeys take place within the Mile itself, with the figure reaching as high as 24%.

Some of the collected data revealed a participation of 38.4% on the part of the workers of the Scientific-Technological Park of Gijon, 30.4% on the part of the students and professors of the University of Oviedo and 31.2% divided between the other participating organizations. On the basis of this information it was decided to initially implement the car sharing mechanism Cated Share for these two first mentioned representative segments.

Nearly 64% of the participants are men as opposed to a little over 36% women. Almost all have a university education (or are currently studying), with just over 35% having an honours degree and close to 18% are graduates, technicians and students respectively. Regarding the sectors in which the participants work, almost 30% are dedicated to ICT, with percentages of around 17% dedicated to engineering, telecommunications and audio-visual media, which added to those from the ICT sector make up the most relevant sectors of the study, exceeding 74%.

With regard to the level of occupation of the different routes of access to the Knowledge Mile, the study reveals that the point which is most used to reach the zone is the N632 highway towards the Botanical Garden, used in 38% of the total journeys, which could be explained by the high number of workers and students of the Mile who come from Gijon. This route is followed by, both with 25% of use, the accesses from the Cantabrian highway(A-8) via Deva and Viesques, that is to say, exits 382 and 385 respectively. Finally, the route of entrance to the Mile which is least used is the Pecuaria Avenue, accounting for 10% of the total number of journeys. The remaining 2% correspond to routes of minor relevance, such as the Santurio road or the Piqueru way.

With regard to the study of the entry and exit timetables of the workers and of those who attend the Knowledge Mile, a division has been made between Fridays and the rest of the week as numerous companies located in the Scientific Park do not work on Friday afternoons. In the period between Monday and Thursday, it is possible to observe two well-defined rush hours. It can be seen that between 07:00 and 09:59 in the morning, starting time for most of the participing organizations, 46% of the total of the daily journeys of entry to the Knowledge Mile take place, and between 14:00 and 16:59, the usual lunch break, another 21% of the displacements of entry occur. This may be due to the fact that an important percentage of workers and students have lunch outside the area.

Regarding the exits, following the same pattern, it can be observed that 33% of the total take place between 13:00 and 16:59, explained both by people leaving the Mile for lunch and by the fact that certain organizations may not work in the afternoons. On the other hand, between 17:00 and 20:59 a significant 44% of the exits of the Mile take place, with a clear preference between 17:00 and 19:59.

Finally, in the schedules corresponding to Fridays, the use of the continuous timetable can be clearly observed, with 52% of the total arrivals to the Mile taking place between 07:00 and 09:59 in the morning, and 48% of the exits in the time between 13:00 and 16:59 of the afternoon.

Frequency on journey time intervals

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Frequency on journey time intervals

In the study it was possible to state that the journeys in general are quite short, bearing in mind that most last less than 15 minutes. This is a clear indication that the urban journeys are more than triple the interurban, this being because 58% of the participants in the experiment are from Gijon, predominatly from El Llano district and the rural zone with 9% each. As far as the rest of Asturias is concerned, it can be highlighted that of the total number of workers and students of the area, 13% come from the central zone (Oviedo, Siero, Llanera, Aviles and Villaviciosa) and only 4% from the mining valley areas (Mieres, Langreo, Aller, etc.).

Total journeys per day

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Total journeys per day

The number of daily journeys oscillated between 120 and 220, with an average of 162. It is possible to observe a slight reduction in the use of the mobile application the last days of the study which is surely due to a loss of motivation on the part of the drivers, perhaps originated because some of them observed in their control panel, through the web application, that they could no longer win the proposed ecochallenge (and therefore the prize) and declined to continue using the system.

Maintaining user motivation is a problem which must be taken into account above all when dealing with studies of a long duration.

Total kilometres per day

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Total kilometres per day

Approximately 26,600 kms were registered in all the study, within which the number of monitored daily kilometres oscillated between 1,400 kms and 2,500 kms approximately with an average of 1,860 kms. It was observed that in the last days of the experiment the number of monitored kms reduced. As was commented previously, this may be due not so much to the reduction in the number of journeys rather than a reduction in the number of kms in each journey.

Number of journeys per user

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Number of journeys per user

The participing users in the study collaborated unequally. Whereas some have surpassed 200 journeys, others have barely reached 10. The nucleus of the users generated between 50 and 100 journeys. The distribution of contributions can be observed in the graph with a heavy tail, indicating that the collaboration pattern has been generally good.

Urban and interurban journeys per day

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Urban and interurban journeys per day

As can be observed in the graph most of the journeys undertaken by the participing drivers in the study have been urban. These are approximately double those of the interurban journeys. This means that most of the drivers are residents of the city of Gijon and make relatively short journeys. As previously commented, the number of journeys fell in the last few days of the study. This decrease was more marked among drivers who made urban journeys, that is to say, among the residents of Gijon, perhaps due to the fact that urban journeys generate worse efficient driving indices which makes it more difficult to win prizes in the ecochallenge. This point should be taken into consideration in future studies.

Originating from Gijon (districts)

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Originating from Gijon (districts)

It is important to emphasize that 76% of the participants in the experiment come from Gijon, being predominantly from the district of El Llano and the rural area with 12% each of the journeys originating in these districts of the city of Gijon.

Originating from outside Gijon

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Originating from outside Gijon

In the case of journeys originating outside the city of Gijon, it must be emphasized that of the total number of workers and students of the zone, 17% come from the central zone of Asturias (Oviedo, Siero, Llanera, Aviles and Villaviciosa) and only 4% from the mining valley areas (Mieres, Langreo, Aller, etc.). In the following graph the distribution only considers journeys originating outside the city of Gijon.

Arrival and exit times from Monday to Thursday

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Arrival times from Monday to Thursday

As far as the study of the entry and exit timetables of the workers and of those who attend the Knowledge Mile, a division has been made between Fridays and the rest of the week as numerous companies located in the Scientific Park do not work on Friday afternoons. In the period between Monday and Thursday, it is possible to observe two well-defined rush hours. It can be seen that between 07:00 and 09:59 in the morning, starting time for most of the participing organizations, 46% of the total of the daily journeys of entry to the Knowledge Mile take place, and between 14:00 and 16:59, the usual lunch break, another 21% of the displacements of entry occur. This may be due to the fact that an important percentage of workers and students have lunch outside the area.

Exit times from Monday to Thursday

Regarding the exits, following the same pattern, it can be observed that 33% of the total take place between 13:00 and 16:59, explained both by people leaving the Mile for lunch and by the fact that certain organizations may not work in the afternoons. On the other hand, between 17:00 and 20:59 a significant 44% of the exits of the Mile take place, with a clear preference between 17:00 and 19:59.

Arrival and exit times on Fridays

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Arrival times on Fridays

Exit times on Fridays

Finally, in the schedules corresponding to Fridays, the use of the continuous timetable can be clearly observed, with 52% of the total arrivals to the Mile taking place between 07:00 and 09:59 in the morning, and 48% of the exits in the time between 13:00 and 16:59 of the afternoon.

Ages of the participants

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Ages of the participants

The participants in the experiment are mostly young between the ages of 24 and 32. In general all the users with the exception of one, were under the age of 50 which reflects the affinity of the young with new technologies and without forgetting, of course, that the area of the Mile is a zone of students and young workers.

Gender of the participants

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65% men - 35% women

As far as the gender of the participants is concerned, 64% were men as opposed to a little more than 36% of women.

Job description

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Job description

The majority of the participants have a university education (or are currently studying), with just over 35% having an honours degree and close to 18% are graduates, technicians and students respectively.

Participants according to sector

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Porcentajes de sectores

The predominant sector is that of ICT, followed by Industrial Engineering and Telecommunications. It is important to point out that the Biosanitary sector is in fifth position although the Hospital of Cabueñes accounts for a numerous group of workers of the Mile. This is due to the fact that the sample of users of the Hospital has not been representative in the total of the sample.

Traffic congestion data

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Mapa de congestión de tráfico

A clear predominance of the use of the Cantabrian highway is observed to access the area of the Mile, accounting for 50% of the total of the monitored journeys. This percentage is divided equally between the two exits nearest the zone of study, namely exit 385 in Viesques and exit 382 in Deva. On the other hand, the following access that shows a greater density of traffic is the N-632 highway from the city centre, representing 38% of the journeys.

Finally, mention that the Pecuaria Avenue is the route that shows a lower density of traffic, registering barely 10% of the total number of journeys that have been monitored.

Traffic congestion data

Likewise, the results obtained in the analysis of the congestion of the accesses to the Knowledge Mile, centred this time on the two points of access to the Scientific- Technological Park of Gijon, it can be clearly observed that throughout the day the load of traffic entering through the Southern entrance is clearly superior to that of the Northern entrance. This is logical considering that the Southern entrance is the obligatory point of entry for all the vehicles that come from the Cantabrian highway or the N-632, the most used routes.

Traffic congestion data